St. Patrick Catholic Church
Saint of the Day

Saint Peter Damian
(Optional Memorial)
February 21

Avitus II of Clermont B (AC)
Died 689. Bishop of Clermont, Auvergne, France, from 676 until his death, Avitus was succeeded by his younger brother, Saint Bonet. Avitus was one of the great bishops of his age in the development of ecclesiastic training (Benedictines).

Daniel and Verda MM (AC)
Died 344. Daniel was a priest; Verda a woman. The two were arrested and tortured in Persia during the persecution of King Shapur II. They are highly venerated in the East (Benedictines, Encyclopedia).

Felix of Metz B (RM)
2nd century. Saint Felix is described as the third bishop of Metz. He is said to have occupied that cathedra for over 40 years in the immediate post-Apostolic age (Benedictines).

George of Amastris B (AC)
Born at Kromna near Amastris on the Black Sea; Died c. 825. Saint George was a hermit on Mount Sirik, then a monk of Bonyssa, and finally bishop of Amastris. He successfully defended his episcopal city during the Saracen attacks (Benedictines).

Germanus & Randoald, OSB MM (AC)
(also known as Germain & Rancald or Randaut)

Born in Trier (Trèves), Palatinate, Germany; died c. 677. Germanus, son of a rich senator, was an orphan raised by Bishop Modoard. At age 17, Germanus disposed of his property and entered Saint Romaric's monastery governed by Saint Arnulf of Metz at Romberg in the Vosges Mountains (Remiremont). Arnulf encouraged the young man to grow in holiness, and he did. Germanus, in turn, encouraged his younger brother Numerian to forsake the world and enter the double monastery, too.

From Remiremont he migrated to Luxeuil under its third abbot Saint Waldebert, who introduced the Benedictine Rule into the abbey. He later became abbot of the Granfel (Münsterthal) Monastery in the Val Moutier, which had been founded by Duke Gondo of Alsace. Germanus became a pioneer in reconstruction, road-building, dedication to the poor and under- privileged. This last was his downfall.

Gondo's successor, Boniface (Catihe), daily oppressed both the monks and poor inhabitants. The holy abbot, while bearing private injuries silently, often pleaded the cause of the poor. The duke laid waste to their lands, destroyed their harvests, and took away the means needed to eke out their poor subsistence. Germanus went out to meet Boniface as he was ravaging their lands and plundering their houses at the head of a troop of soldiers. German begged Boniface to spare a distressed and innocent people. The duke promised to stop, but his soldiers took up the killing, burning, and plundering again while the saint prayed in the church of St. Maurice.

The soldiers had long awaited an opportunity to expunge the inconvenient abbot who often denounced their ravaging of the poor. When Germanus and Randoald, his prior, were on their way back to Granfel, the soldiers captured, stripped, and pierced them with swords as the martyrs prayed. Their relics were deposited at Granfel, and were exposed in a rich shrine till the Reformation, when they were translated to Telsberg, or Delmont. Their acta were written by a contemporary priest, Babolen (Benedictines, Encyclopedia, Husenbeth).

Germanus is pictured as a Benedictine abbot holding a lance. Sometimes Randoald, his prior, is with him. Germanus may also be shown with a poor man at his feet (because he was murdered by the duke for interceding for the poor) or with a book, palm, and crozier. Germanus is venerated in Trier, Remiremont, Luxeuil, and Granfel (Roeder).

Gundebert of Senones, OSB B (AC)
(also known as Gombert, Gumbert, Gondelbert)

Died c. 676. The Frankish Bishop Saint Gundebert abandoned the episcopacy of Sens for a more perfect life as a hermit in the Vosges, where he founded the abbey of Senones c. 660 (Benedictines, Encyclopedia).

Died 79. Spanish. Sister of Pope Saint Damasus (Encyclopedia).

Venerable John Henry Newman
Born in London, 1801; died 1890. (I'm having trouble finding information to verify his feast day and status, so I would say this is very unofficial.) Newman was what all Christians should be--a pilgrim in a foreign land. By the influence and magnetism of his strangely mystic personality, he cast a spell over his generation. In his day, he was the best-known figure of the English Church, to which, beginning as an evangelical, he brought new inspiration and vitality, and from which, in the agony of his spirit and to the discomfiture of his friends, he turned to Rome.

John Newman was a man of authentic sanctity and of excessive sensibility, touched with genius, and bearing about him such grace and light as to seem almost of anohter world, so that to his contemporaries, as one of them declared, in him it was almost as though some Ambrose or Augustine of older times had reappeared.

He was the son of a banker, and at 15 declared himself to God. At Oxford, like Wesley before him, though in a more conventional way, he strove against religious indifference. As vicar of Saint Mary's he preached his famous University Sermons, which circulated widely, provoked lively controversy, and led to an Anglican revival.

Later he resigned his post nad retired to Littlemore, a small parish near Oxford, where for a time he gathered his followers around him. Here in the quiet countryside was the nucleus of a spiritual fellowship, the influence of which penetrated far and wide. Here in withdrawal and retreat the hearts of many were refreshed. Three years later, however, he was received into the Roman Catholic Church. In 1879 he was made a cardinal, but though he reached such high preferment, never again was his influence so great as in those golden Oxford days with all their hope and promise.

It was on an orange boat bound from Palermo to Marseilles that he wrote his lovely him, Lead, Kindly Light. He had been ill with malaria, alone in Sicily, for weeks waiting for a boat, and its words reflect his mood of homesickness and depression. Indeed, we may read into its wistful lines the story of his life. But though the night was dark and he was far from home, from within burned an unearthly light and God was the only substance in this world of shadows.

There is a pathetic story of how in later years, as an old man, he revisited Littlemore, the scene of his lonely vigils. He came unknown, poorly dressed, the collar of his shabby overcoat turned up, his hat pulled down over his eyes as if to hide his features, and as he leaned over the lych-gate of the church he was weeping. The curate recognized him and offered help, but the old man said there was nothing he needed, and as he turned to go the tears streamed down his face. That picture is in character with so much of Newman's life and sensitive spirit for he found no rest in this world, ever tasting the agony of intense spiritual struggle, but always also reflecting the grace and glory of a saintly life (Gill).

Blessed Nicholas of Vangadizza, OSB Cam. (AC)
Died c. 1210. Nicholas, a Camaldolese monk and priest at Vangadizza abbey, was a great helper to holy souls (Benedictines).

Blessed Noel Pinot M (AC)
(also known as Natalis)

Born at Angers, France, in 1747; died 1794; beatified in 1926. Noel was ordained a priest in 1771 and labored as a parish priest in Louroux-Béconnais until the outbreak of the French Revolution. When he refused to take the oath recognizing the civil constitution of the clergy, he was ousted from his parish, but continued to minister to his flock. At first he was secretive about this ministry. Then he grew bolder. In 1794, he was captured when vested for Mass and guillotined--still wearing his priestly vestments (Benedictines).

Paterius of Brescia B (RM)
Died 606. Paterius, a Roman monk, was a disciple and friend of Pope Saint Gregory the Great. He was a notary in the Roman Church, who was raised to the see of Brescia, Lombardy. Paterius was a prolific writer on Biblical subjects (Benedictines).

Blessed Pepin of Landen (AC)
(also known as Pippin)

Died February 21, c. 646. Pepin was, perhaps, the most important, powerful person in the empire during his age. As duke of Brabant and mayor of the palace (first minister) of kings Clotaire II, Dagobert I, and Sigebert III, he determined much of the policy of the Franks. Pepin, the ancestor of the Carolingian dynasty of French kings, was the husband of Blessed Itta and father Grimoald, of Saint Gertrude of Nivelles and Saint Begga. He is described as "a lover of peace and the constant defender of truth and justice," though it may not seem that way at first glance.

Pepin and Bishop Arnulf of Metz aided King Clotaire II of Neustria in overthrowing Queen Brunhilda of Austrasia in 613. In recognition of the important roles they played, Clotaire appointed them mayors of the palace to rule Austrasia for Clotaire's son Dagobert I from 623. When Pepin rebuked Dagobert (who had succeeded his father about 629) for his licentious life, Dagobert discharged him and he retired to Aquitaine. Dagobert still respected him enough to appoint him tutor of his three-year-old son Sigebert before his death in 638, and Pepin returned and ruled the kingdom until his own death the following year.

Pepin worked to spread the faith throughout the kingdom, defended Christian towns from Slavic invaders, and chose responsible men to fill vacant sees. The marriage of his daughter, Begga, and Bishop Arnulf's son, Segislius, produced Pepin of Herstal, the first of the Carolingian dynasty in France. Pepin of Landen was buried at Landen, but his relics were later translated to Nivelle, where they are now enshrined with those of his wife and daughter Gertrude. Here is feast is kept. Pepin was never canonized but is listed as a saint in some of the old Belgic martyrologies and a litany published by the authority of the archbishop of Mechlin (Benedictines, Delaney, Encyclopedia, Husenbeth).

Peter the Scribe M (RM)
(also known as Peter Mavimenus)

Died 743. Saint Peter was a scribe (chartularius) in Majuma, Palestine, where he was executed for his faith by the Arab sheik of Damascus (Benedictines).

Peter Damian, B Doctor (RM)
Born in Ravenna, Italy, 1001; died at Faenza, Italy, February 22, 1072; declared Doctor of the Church in 1828.

"Here they live in endless being:
Passingness hath passed away:
Here they bloom, they thrive, they flourish,
For decayed is all decay."

--Saint Peter Damian from his Hymn on the Glory of Paradise.

The parents of this brilliant teacher and writer died shortly after his birth. Peter's elder brother used the young lad as an unpaid servant until another brother, Damian, found Peter tending pigs and rescued him, sending him to be educated at Faenza and Parma. This brother was a priest and Peter took his Christian name--Damian--as his own surname.

Peter Damian responded readily to his teachers and became proficient enough in grammar, rhetoric, and law that he later taught at Ravenna. He began to practice austerities by himself, gave liberal alms, seldom went without some poor persons at his table, and took pleasure in serving them with his own hands. But he longed to do more for his Lord. The Lord answered his prayer by sending two religious of Fonte Avellana to visit his home. They told him much about their way of life. So, at age 34 (1035) he became a Benedictine monk at Fonte Avellana, a monastery founded 20 years earlier by Blessed Rudolph.

The brothers of Fonte Avellana lived as hermits in bare cells, utterly disciplined and given to constant study of the Bible. Their regimen was so austere that, for a time, Peter's health broke down. Nevertheless, Peter became a model monk who occupied himself by studying Scripture and patristic theology, and transcribing manuscripts. He was elected prior of this small, poor community in 1043. Others were attracted to imitate his life, and Peter founded five more religious houses for them. He became famous for his uncompromising attitude toward worldliness and denunciations of simony and clerical marriage.

In 1057, Peter was named cardinal-bishop of Ostia by Pope Stephen IX. His fame spread as he took a leading role in the Gregorian Reform. In 1059, he participated in the Lateran synod that proclaimed the right of the cardinals alone to elect future bishops of Rome. After a brief time as bishop, with the permission of Pope Alexander II (which previously had been denied by Nicholas II) and under the condition that he continue to serve the Holy See as needed, Peter returned to his cell. There he wrote unceasingly, on purgatory, the Eucharist, and other theological and ascetical topics, but he also wrote poetry. While his Latin verse is among the very best of the Middle Ages, especially that in honor of Pope Saint Gregory, which begins "Anglorum iam Apostolus," Peter Damian never considered his learning something of which to boast. What counted, he said, was to worship God, not to write about Him. What use was it to construct a grammatically correct sentence containing the word 'God,' if you could not pray to him properly.

In his ideas about monasticism, the saint always looked back to the example of the early desert monks. Although he regarded the monastic life as inferior to eremitic life, he advocated regular canoical life for cathedral clergy, and was a precursor of the devotional development to the Passion of Christ. In some respects he was not unlike the highly-critical Saint Jerome in character, fervor, and impatience. Although he was kind to his monks and indulgent to penitents, his writings reveal his severity. It may seem odd to us that Peter Damian reproved the bishop of Florence for playing a single game of chess, or objected strenuously to monks seating themselves as they chanted the Divine Office. His onslaught on clerical misconduct is called The Gomorrah Book. But the austerities he prescribed for others, he practiced himself. When not employed in prayer or work, he made wooden spoons and other utensils to get his hands from idleness.

Peter also continued the work of ecclesiastical reform. He opposed the antipopes, especially Honorius II. And he went on missions for the pope--once even managing to persuade the king of Germany not to divorce his wife, Bertha. When Henry, archbishop of Ravenna, had been excommunicated for grievous enormities, Peter was sent by Alexander II as legate to settle the troubles. When he arrived at Ravenna, he found the bishop had died and brought his accomplices to repentance. Peter died at Faenza on route back to from Ravenna, which he had just reconciled with the Holy See. His vita was written by his disciple John of Lodi. Although he was never formally canonized, local cults arose at his death, and, in 1828, Pope Leo XII extended his feast to the Universal Church (Attwater, Benedictines, Bentley, Blum, Delaney, Encyclopedia, Farmer, Gill, Walsh, White).

In art, Saint Peter is portrayed as a cardinal archbishop holding a birch and a book. Sometimes he may be shown (1) as a bishop with the cardinal's hat above his head or by his side, (2) as an old hermit, dead in a cave, lying on a stone slab with a crucifix on his breast; books, miter, cardinal's hat, and angels near him (Roeder), or (3) praying before a cross with a miter and cardinal's hat on the ground (White).

Robert Southwell, SJ M (RM)
Born at Horsham Saint Faith's, Norfolk, England, in 1561 or 1562; died at Tyburn, London, England, February 21, 1595; beatified in 1929; canonized on October 25, 1970, by Pope Paul VI as one of the 40 representative martyrs of England and Wales.

The Church has been built on the blood of martyrs--the living stones. Before there were cathedrals, there were the catacombs; since then objects of value have been piled about our altars, but the most precious is contained beneath each altar in the mandatory "tomb"--the shrine with the relics of a martyr--and upon the tomb the chalice with the precious Blood of Christ. We would do well to recall the many previous Masses that were celebrated in haste and secrecy--for us, like the martyrs, each Mass might be the viaticum. Receive the Source of Life with joy, attention, and thanksgiving.

When King Henry VIII could not induce his wife, Catherine of Aragon, to allow their marriage to be declared invalid because she was his brother's widow, Henry declared himself head of the Church in England. He persuaded the Parliament to declare that it was high treason for anyone to deny Henry's right to this title. On this account monasteries were closed and Church property confiscated--both real and monetary, including the innumerable foundations designed to maintain schools for the people, who were largely illiterate. A long procession of saints and beati were executed under Henry VIII.

(Of course, we should always remember that Roman Catholics are not alone in being persecuted. While the English kings and queens hanged and quartered Catholics, Protestants were burned in France and Spain. There was the difference that Protestants in Spain and France were trying to destroy the ancient traditions of the people, while Catholicism in England did not show itself incompatible with the order of society.)

Robert Southwell's lineage included most of the country gentry of Suffolk and Norfolk, but his father Richard was born on the wrong side of the sheets though his grandfather, also Richard, did eventually marry Robert's grandmother, a poor relation of his first wife.

Richard Southwell, Sr., had been a courtier to Henry VIII and received his share of the booty from the pillaging of monasteries, including the ancient Benedictine priory of Horsham Saint Faith. Richard changed his political and religious affiliations a few times during the reigns of Edward and Mary of Scotland. The saint's father had married Queen Elizabeth's governess; thus, Richard Senior's grandson Robert was born in the old Benedictine priory.

Robert is the mystic among the English martyrs, though circumstances made him a man of action and bold adventure. Fire, sweetness, purity, and gentleness were features of Robert Southwell's nature.

Once as a child, he was stolen by gypsies, who were numerous in the great woods surrounding Saint Faith's. His nurse found him again. Robert referred to this misadventure often. "What had I remained with the gipsy? How abject, how void of all knowledge and reverence of God! In what shameful vices, in how great danger of infamy, in how certain danger of an unhappy death and eternal punishment!" On his return to England as a missionary, the first person he visited was his old nurse, whom he tried to lead back to the Roman Catholic Church.

His father sent him to Douai to be educated by the Jesuits, either because he was a Catholic at that time or because of the reputation of the order's schools. There Robert met John Cotton, who later operated a safehouse in London.

Robert was inspired with intense enthusiasm for the Society of Jesus and begged entry at once, though he was too young. He was bitterly disappointed, but on the feast of Saint Faith (fortuitously on October 17, 1578) he was received into the order in Rome as a novice. He spent his novitiate in Tournai, but took his vows and, in 1584, was ordained to the priesthood in Rome, where for a time he was prefect in the English College.

At this time he began to attract a good deal of attention by his poems. He corresponded with Mr. Parsons, the leader of the Jesuit mission in England. He was worried that many who had been faithful Catholics were now sliding into the Church of England to avoid the fine for every service from which they absented themselves. Many families held out until they were financially ruined; then they would attempt to make their way to the continent and live on alms.

Though Robert Southwell knew how his journey to England would end, with Father Henry Garnet, he returned in 1586 to serve among those Catholics who were still willing to venture life and welfare by hearing a Mass and receiving the Sacraments. Before his departure he wrote to the general of hte Jesuits, Claudius Acquaviva, "I address you, my Father, from the threshold of death, imploring the aid of your prayers . . . that I may either escape the death of the body for further use, or endure it with courage."

Most of the remaining Catholics were to be found in the countryside. Most were content to long for better days and hope that a priest could be smuggled into their sickroom before their deaths. On the other hand, among the actively militant there was a wonderful cohesion and a mutual helpfulness and affection that recalled the days of the primitive Church. But thes little congregations that assembled before dawn in a secret room of some remote manor house never knew if a traitor might be in their midst.

Southwell rode about the countryside in disguise, saying Mass, hearing confessions, celebrating marriages, baptizing, re-admitting apostates, giving the Sacraments to the dying. He even managed to visit Catholics in prison and say Mass there. Time after time he miraculously managed to elude his pursuers.

Much of Southwell's correspondence during this period has been preserved and provides many insights into the events and attitudes of hte period. These were hard times. In one letter he requests permission to consecrate chalices and altar slabs (usually reserved to the bishop)--so much had been taken away in the constant searching of the homes of Catholics that such things were becoming scarce.

His letters home also reveal Robert's anxiety about the salvation of his father and one of his brothers, Thomas. The soul of the poet is evident when he writes his brother: "Shrine not any longer a dead soul in a living body: bail reason out of senses' prison, that after so long a bondage in sin, you may enjoy your former liberty in God's Church, and free your thought from servile awe of uncertain perils. . . . Weigh with yourself at how easy a price you rate God, Whom you are content to sell for hte use of your substance. . . . Look if you can upon a crucifix without blushing; do not but count the five wounds of Christ once over without a bleeding conscience."

Thomas was won back to the faith and died in exile in the Netherlands. His father died in prison after Robert's martyrdom, but it is unknown whether he, too, suffered for the faith.

As chronicled in Robert's letters, the persecution intensified after the defeat of the Spanish Armada. Captured Catholics used their trials in defense of the faith. Robert tried to remain at large for as long as possible by adopting disguises and using the alias of Mr. Cotton--a poor, unkempt, and socially awkward young man.

Robert was a priest in London from 1584 to 1592. About 1590, Robert Southwell became chaplain to Anne, countess of Arundel, wife of the imprisoned Saint Philip Howard, who was being told lies about her now-faithful husband. To Southwell, Earl Philip wrote from prison that his greatest sorrow was that he would never see his wife again. "I call Our Lord to witness that as no sin grieves me so much as my offenses to that party [Anne], so no worldly things makes me loather to depart hence than that I cannot live to make that party satisfaction, according to my most ardent and affectionate desire. Afflictio dat intellectum (affliction gives understanding)."

During the time that Fr. Southwell was concealed in Arundel House in London, he corresponded with Philip Howard because of their mutual affection for Anne Dacre and because of their shared faith and shared interest in poetry. Southwell holds a place in English literature as a religious poet. Ben Jonson remarked to Drummond that "Southwell was hanged, yet so he [Jonson] had written that piece of his 'The Burning Babe' he would have been content to destroy many of his." Many of Southwell's poems, apologetic tracts, and devotional books were published on a private printing press installed at Arundel House.

At Arundel House, the soon-to-be martyr also found himself often lost in mystical experiences that are later revealed in his poetry. There is an unforgettable power in his poetic image of Christ as the unwearied God throughout eternity supporting the earth on His fingertip and enclosing all creation in the hollow of His hand, but Who, in His humanity, breaks down and falls beneath the weight of a single person's sin.

Robert Southwell was betrayed by Anne Bellamy. After giving her absolution during her confinement with a family in Holborn, he told her that he would offer Mass in the secret room in her father Richard's home in Harrow on June 20, 1592. She reported this to Richard Topcliffe, one of the most notorious for hunting down priests. Robert Southwell was arrested while still wearing his vestments. Southwell was immediately tortured upon arrival at Topcliffe's Westminster home--for two days he was hung up by the wrists against a wall, so that he could barely touch the floor with the tips of his toes.

When he was at the point of death, his tormentors revived him, hung him up again, and prodded him to reveal the names of other priests and for information to condemn Lady Arundel. All he would confess was that he was a Jesuit priest. He gave no information, not even the color of the horse on which he had riden, that would allow them to find other Catholics. Southwell's steadfastness led several of the witnesses, including the Treasurer Sir Robert Cecil, to whisper that he must indeed be a saint.

He was taken from Topcliffe's house to a filthy cell in the Gatehouse and left for a month. His father, seeing him covered with lice, begged the queen to treat his son as the gentleman he was. She obliged by having Southwell moved to a cleaner cell and permitting his father to send him clean clothes and other necessities, including a Bible and the writings of Saint Bernard.

Robert Southwell was moved to the Tower of London, where he was imprisoned for three years and tortured 13 times (according to Cecil). Many of his poems on death, including "Saint Peter's Complaint," were written in the Tower. Not once was he given the opportunity to confess his sins or say Mass.

He was allowed only one visit--from his sister. Communication with Saint Philip Howard was limited to notes smuggled between their cells. Because Arundel's dog would sometimes follow the warder into Southwell's cell, the lieutenant of the Tower mocked that he supposed the dog had gone to get the priest's blessing. Howard replied, "Marry! it is no news for irrational creatures to seek blessings at the hands of holy men. Saint Jerome writes how those lions which had digged with their paws Saint Paul the Hermit's grave stood after waiting with their eyes upon Saint Antony expecting his blessing."

Finally, Southwell entreated Cecil to bring him to trial or permit him visitors. To which Cecil answered, "if he was in so much haste to be hanged, he should quickly have his desire." Shortly thereafter he was taken to Newgate Prison and placed in the underground dungeon called Limbo before being brought to trial at Westminster on February 20, 1595. He was condemned for being a priest. When the Lord Chief Justice Popham offered the services of an Anglican priest to prepare him for death, he declined saying that the grace ofGod would be more than sufficient for him.

Like many martyrs before him, Southwell drew the admiration of the crowds because he walked as though he whole being were filled with happiness at the prospect of being executed the next day. On the morrow, the tall, slight man of light brown hair and beard was taken to the "Tyburn Tree," a gallows, where the custom was for the condemned to be drive underneath the gallows in a cart, a rope secured around his neck, and the cart driven from under him. According to the sentence, the culprit would hang until he was dead or cut down before reaching that point.

Standing in the cart, Father Southwell began preaching on Romans 14: "Whether we live, we live unto the Lord: or whether we die, we die unto the Lord. Therefore, whether we live or whether we die, we are the Lord's. . . . I am brought hither to perform the last act of this miserable life, and . . . I do most humbly desire at the hands of Almighty God for our Savior Jesus' sake, that He would vouchsafe to pardon and forgive all my sins. . . ." He acknowledged that he was a Catholic priest and declared that he never intended harm or evil against the queen, but always prayed for her. He end with "In manus tuas, Domine (into Your hands, Lord), I commend my spirit." Contrary to the sentence, he was dead before he was cut down and quartered (Benedictines, Delaney, Undset).

Severian of Scythopolis BM (RM)
Died c. 452. Severian was bishop of Scythiopolis in Galilee who, on his return from the Council of Chalcedon, which condemned the Eutychian heresy, was murdered by the Eutychian heretics with the connivance of Empress Eudoxia. While the decrees of the council had been accepted by most of the monks of Palestine, the Eutychian monk Theodosius, a man with an explosive temper, did not. With the help of Eudoxia, Theodosius and his monks managed to have Patriarch Juvenal of Jerusalem exiled and himself consecrated as bishop. Thereafter, Theodosius began to persecute the orthodox Christians. Saint Severianus, like many other Christians before him and at that time, resisted Juvenal and received the crown of martyrdom. He was seized by soldiers, dragged from the city, and murdered. His vita was written by a monk named Cyril the monk (Benedictines, Husenbeth).

Valerius of Astorga, OSB Abbot (AC)
Born in Astorga, Spain; died 695. Saint Valerius, monk and later abbot of San Pedro del Montes monastery, is the representative of the revival wrought by Saint Isidore. Several of his ascetical writings have survived (Benedictines).

Verulus, Secundinus, and Companions (RM)
Died c. 434. Verulus, Secundinus, Siricius, Felix, Servulus, Saturninus, Fortunatus, and 19 companions were martyred in northern Africa at Hadrumetum. The Roman Martyrology lists them as suffering during the Vandal persecution but it is unclear that this is true (Benedictines).

About Saints of the Day
These summaries were prepared in 1998 by St. Patrick's parishioner Katherine I. Rabenstein and are reproduced on with the permission of the author. Note that the content has not been updated since that time and represents the research of the author. An alphabetical index of all saints on our site is available. Source references are also available. HTML formatting © 2007-2008 by St. Patrick's Catholic Church, Washington, D.C.