Saint Bonaventure, Bishop & Doctor
Abudimus (Abudemius) of Tenedos M (RM)
4th century. A native of the island of Tenedos in the Aegean, who was martyred under Diocletian (Benedictines).
Adalard the Younger, OSB (PC)
Died c. 824. Saint Adalard was a monk of Corbie Abbey under Abbot Saint Adalard. He was only 20 years old when he died (Benedictines).
Blessed Angelina of Marsciano, OFM Tert. Widow (AC)
Born at Montegiove, Umbria, in 1377; died 1435; cultus confirmed in 1825. Angelina married at age 15 and was widowed by the time she was 17. Thereafter, Angelina founded a convent of regular tertiaries of Saint Francis of Foligno, which was finished in 1397. By the time that she died, there were no fewer than 135 such houses under her direction as superior general (Benedictines, Encyclopedia).
Blessed Anne Marie Javouhey (AC)
(also known as Nanette)
Born at Jallanges, Burgundy, France, on November 10, 1779; died Paris, France, July 15, 1851; beatified in 1950. Anne Marie was the fifth of ten children of a wealthy farmer, Balthazar Javouhey, and his wife, Claudine. She grew up during the terror of the French Revolution. She received her First Communion about a week before the Constituent Assembly in Paris that moved to confiscate all Church property and required that clergy swear an oath of allegiance to the secular state. Practicing priests who refused to take the oath were considered to be criminals; those who took it, including four of 135 bishops and about half the priests, were excommunicated. Throughout her teen years she became accustomed to hiding and caring for persecuted priests. She would keep watch as they said Mass.
At an early age, she decided that she wanted to devote her life to the poor and the education of children. When the persecution had ended, she took the veil. At a convent in BesanÁon in 1800, she had a vision of Negro children, which was to influence her later life. After failing to adjust to life in several convents, she and eight companions founded the Institute of Saint Joseph of Cluny at Cabillon in 1805.
They were clothed by the bishop of Autun in 1807. Seven years later (1812), they purchased a friary and moved the congregation to Cluny. The Sisters of Saint Joseph gained renown for their successful teaching methods. Fired with apostolic zeal, she sent her nuns to work in far distant regions. She heroically labored for several years (1828-1832) in French Guyana. In 1834, she was again sent their, this time by the French government to educate 600 Guyanan slaves who were to be emancipated. She finally left French Guyana in 1843 and spent her remaining years establishing new house in Tahiti, Madagascar, and elsewhere (Benedictines, Delaney).
Antiochus and Cyriacus MM (RM)
3rd century. The laus in the Roman Martyrology reads: "At Sebaste the passion of Saint Antiochus the physician who was beheaded under the governor Hadrian; and when milk flowed forth from the severed head in place of blood, Cyriacus, the executioner, was converted to Christ, and himself also suffered martyrdom" (Benedictines).
Apronia (Evronie) of Troyes V (AC)
5th or 6th century. Saint Apronia, born near Trier (TrŤves), Germany, was the sister of Bishop Saint Aprus (Evre) of Toul, from whom she received the veil. Apronia died at Troyes (Benedictines).
Athanasius of Naples B (RM)
Died 872. Saint Athanasius, son of the duke of Naples, became bishop of that city when he was just 18 years old. After he had governed it for 20 years, he began to suffer from the exactions of his relatives, who held the civil authority of Naples. Unwilling to concede ecclesial power to them, he was imprisoned, then exiled. He died at Veroli and was buried at Monte Cassino. His relics were later translated to Naples (Benedictines).
Baldwin of Rieti, OSB Cist. Abbot (AC)
Died 1140. Saint Baldwin became a monk at Clairvaux under Saint Bernard and one of the most beloved disciples of the holy founder. He was sent back to his native Italy as abbot of San Pastore in the diocese of Rieti, of which he is the principal patron saint (Benedictines).
Barhadbesaba (Barhadbesciabas), Deacon M (AC)
Died July 20, 355. Saint Barhadbesaba, a zealous deacon of Arbela (Adiabene), Persia, was beheaded in the 15th year of the persecutions under Shapur II. He was apprehended by the troops of Sapor Tamsapor, governor of Arbela, and put on the rack. As he was tormented, the officers continually cried out, "Worship water and fire, and eat the blood of beasts, and you shall be set free immediately." Barhadbesaba's interior peace was so strong that he remained cheerful throughout. He often said to the judge, "Neither you nor your king, nor any torment shall ever separate me from the love of Jesus; Him alone have I served from my infancy to this old age." Unable to persuade him to apostatize, Tamsapor condemned him to be decapitated by Aghaeus, an apostate Christian nobleman. The saint was filled with joyful anticipation of his martyrdom, but Aghaeus trembled so badly that he was unable to give the blow. He struck the martyr's neck seven times without finishing the deed; therefore, he ran his sword into the saint's bowels. Although the judge set guards over the holy relics, two priests carried them off at night and buried them in the Roman fashion (Benedictines, Husenbeth).
Benedict of Angers B (AC)
Died c. 820. Benedict was bishop of Angers during the reign of Louis the Pious (Benedictines).
Blessed Bernard of Baden (AC)
Born in 1428; died 1458; cultus confirmed in 1481 and again in 1769. Bernard was the margrave of Baden, who renounced his worldly power and possessions in order to organize a Crusade to the Holy Land. While his brother took on Bernard's former secular rule, God's man offered himself to several European courts to undertake a crusade against the Turks. He died without having met his goal (Benedictines).
Bonaventure, OFM B Doctor (RM)
Born in Bagnorea near Viterbo, Italy, in 1221; died at Lyons, France, in 1274; canonized in 1482; declared a Doctor (the "Seraphic Doctor") of the Church in 1587 by Sixtus V; feast day formerly on July 14.
"Look not to the light but rather to the raging fire that carries the soul to God with intense fervor and glowing love." -- Bonaventure.
"Thorns and cross and nails and lance,
Wounds, our rich inheritance . . .
May these all our spirits fill,
And with love's devotion thrill . . .
Christ, by coward hands betrayed,
Christ, for us a captive made,
Christ upon the bitter tree,
Slain for man--all praise to thee." --Saint Bonaventure
"In beautiful things Saint Francis saw Beauty itself, and through His vestiges imprinted on creation he followed his Beloved everywhere, making from all things a ladder by which he could climb up and embrace Him who is utterly desirable." --Bonaventure
"Since happiness is nothing but the enjoyment of the Supreme Good, and since the Supreme Good is above us, we cannot be happy unless we rise beyond ourselves. Since we cannot reach above ourselves in our own strength, we must be helped by supernatural strength, lifted up by a higher power that stoops to raise us. However much we structure our inner lives and make progress, it does us no good unless our efforts are accompanied by help from on high. Divine aid is available for those who seek it with a devout and humble heart; this is done by fervent prayer.
"Prayer is, therefore, the source and origin of every upward journey toward God. Let us each, then, turn to prayer and say to our Lord God: 'Lead me, O Lord, on your path, that I may walk in your truth.'"
"Meditation on Christ in His humanity is corporeal in deed, in fact, but spiritual in mind. . . . By adopting this habit, you will steady your mind, be trained to virtues, and receive strength of soul....Let meditation of Christ's life be your one and only aim, your rest, your food, your desire, your study."
"From contemplation of the Passion the soul will receive a new compassion, a new love, new consolations, and consequently, as it were, a new state of soul, which seems to be a presage and share of eternal glory." --Saint Bonaventure.
Born Giovanni (John) di Fidanza, an untrustworthy legend says that his name was changed to Bonaventure ("good fortune") by Saint Francis of Assisi, who miraculously cured him of a dangerous illness during his childhood and exclaimed: O buona ventura!
A contemporary of Saint Thomas Aquinas and Saint Albert the Great, he went to the University of Paris when he was 14. There he studied theology under the English Franciscan, Alexander of Hales (the "Unanswerable Doctor"); and it was perhaps the influence of this teacher that induced him to enter the order when he was 20.
By 1248, he was a bachelor of Scripture; two years later he became a bachelor of theology; and three years after that he became a master of theology and was appointed to the professorial chair of the Friars Minor. He taught theology and Scripture, and preached in Paris for many years (1248-1255), concentrating on the elucidation of some of the problems that especially exercised men's minds in his day.
His teaching was curtailed by the opposition of secular professors, who were jealous of the new mendicants' success and were perhaps made uncomfortable by their austere lives when compared unfavorably with their own. Apparently, their disdain for the Franciscans, led the university to delay granting him a doctorate in theology, yet this did not embitter Bonaventure. With Aquinas he defended the mendicant friars against their opponents.
When the secular leader William of Saint-Armour wrote The perils of the last times, Bonaventure responded by publishing Concerning the poverty of Christ, a treatise on holy poverty. Pope Alexander IV denounced Saint-Armour, had his book burned, and ordered a halt to the attack on the mendicants. Thus, vindicated, the mendicant orders were re-established at Paris and Bonaventure and Aquina received their doctorates in theology in 1257.
That same year, when he was only 36, Bonaventure was elected minister general of the Franciscans. In this position he was faced with a difficult task, for though Saint Francis had established an incomparable spiritual ideal for his order, his organization was weak and since his death a number of different groups had arisen.
At the general chapter of Narbonne in 1260, Bonaventure designed a set of constitutions as a rule, which had a lasting effect on the order, and for which he is called the second founder of the Franciscans. It has, however, been claimed that he also weakened the spirit of Saint Francis; the Life that he wrote of him, in order to promote unity among the brothers, was accurate but incomplete, and he modified the rule that forbade the brothers to accept money or own property.
The severe-interpretation Spirituals valued poverty above all else, including learning. Bonaventure strongly supported the importance of study to the order and the need for the order to provide books and buildings. He confirmed the practice of monks teaching and studying at universities, believing that the Franciscans could better fulfill the need for preaching and spiritual guidance to compensate for other poorly educated clergy.
In addition to theological and philosophical works, Saint Bonaventure has left us sundry ascetical treatises, some of which have been translated into English including the Journey of the soul to God. The hymn In the Lord's atoning grief is a translation from Bonaventure. Among his works are Commentary on the sentences of Peter Lombard (which covers the whole field of scholastic theology), the mystical works Breviloquium, Itinerarium mentis ad Deum, De reductione artium ad theologium, Perfection of life (written for Blessed Isabella, sister of Saint Louis IX, and her convent of Poor Clares), Soliloquy, The three-fold way, biblical commentaries, and sermons.
Bonaventure was nominated as archbishop of York in 1265, but refused the honor. In 1273, much against his will, Bonaventure was made cardinal and bishop of Albano by Pope Gregory X. His personal simplicity is illustrated by the story that when his cardinal's hat was brought to him at the friary in Mugello (near Florence), he told the legates to hang it on a nearby tree, as he was washing the dishes and his hands were wet and greasy.
The following year, Pope Gregory called him to draw up the agenda for the 14th general council at Lyons to discuss the reunion of Rome with the churches of the East. Saint Thomas Aquinas died en route to the council. Bonaventure was the leading figure in the success of the council that effected the brief reunion, and led his last general chapter of the order between the third and fourth sessions. Bonaventure died while the Council of Lyons was still in session and was buried in Lyons.
Saint Bonaventure's reputation is based on his personal goodness and his skill as a theologian. "In him it seemed as though Adam had not sinned," wrote Alexander of Hales, and when he died the official record of the Council of Lyons stated: "In the morning died Brother Bonaventure of famous memory, a man outstanding in sanctity, kind, affable, pious and merciful, full of virtues, beloved of God and man. . . . God gave him the grace that whoever saw him conceived a great and heartfelt love for him."
The saint was known for his accessibility to any and all who wished to consult him, and once explained his urgency in making himself available to a simple lay brother by saying, "I am at the same time both prelate and master, and that poor brother is both my brother and my master."
Though Bonaventure and Aquinas were friends in their lifetime, the two men had strongly opposed each other on the question of the neo- Aristotelianism that was being introduced into theology, for Saint Bonaventure feared that as a result philosophy would be elevated above theology and that reason would be made more important than revelation.
Saint Bonaventure was a man of the highest intellectual attainments, but he would emphasize that a fool's love and knowledge of God may be greater than that of a humanly wise man. To reach God, he said, "little attention must be given to reason and great attention to grace, little to books and everything to the gift of God, which is the Holy Spirit." Above all he emphasized charity: "For in truth, a poor and unlearned old woman can love God better than a Doctor of Theology."
Bonaventure believed that the created world gave us a sign of God. But faith was needed, honed by reason, to lead to contemplation of the divine. When his friend Aquinas asked where Bonaventure gained his own great knowledge, Bonaventure pointed to a crucifix. "I study only the crucified one, Jesus Christ," he replied.
Philosophy in itself was only an instrument, and unless it was modified in the light of revelation would lead into error, or into an arid preoccupation with intellectual arguments for their own sake. In his opposition to Aristotelian philosophy, Saint Bonaventure no doubt went too far, and the synthesis achieved by Saint Thomas has had none of the disastrous effects that he feared. Yet in taking his stand on the primacy of theology, he was aligning himself with the greatest of all Christian thinkers, Saint Augustine, and in stressing the supremacy of grace, he was following in the footsteps of the founder of his order, Saint Francis (Attwater, Benedictines, Bentley, Costelloe, Encyclopedia, Gilson, White).
Other documents on Saint Bonaventure:
Sixtus IV's Superna caelestis (1482) (On the Canonization of St. Bonaventure)
In art, Saint Bonaventure is a cardinal in a Franciscan habit reading or writing. At times he may be shown (1) with the Tree of Life (i.e., Christ crucified in a tree); (2) with a rod blossoming into a crucifix; (3) with a bishop's crozier and mitre as well as a cardinal's hat; (4) holding a pyx; (5) receiving the Eucharist from an angel; (6) with an angel near him listening to his prayers; (7) with a papal tiara on a table before him; (8) in a library with Saint Thomas Aquinas, to whom he points out the crucifix; (9) as a cardinal presiding at the Council of Lyons; or, as in this painting by Francisco de ZurbarŠn, (10) with the pope and emperor attending his funeral (Roeder).
Catulinus (Cartholinus), Januarius, Florentius, Julia & Justa MM (RM)
Date unknown. The bodies of these Carthaginian martyrs are enshrined in the basilica of Fausta at Carthage. Saint Augustine preached a panegyric on Deacon Saint Catulinus, which is still extant. Nothing else is known (Benedictines).
David of Munkentorp, OSB B (AC)
(also known as David of Sweden)
Died c. 1080; the feast of his translation is June 25 on some calendars. Tradition names David an English Benedictine, who had a passionate desire to give his life to Christ through martyrdom. When he heard of the death of Saint Sigfrid's three nephews--Winaman, Unaman, and Sunaman--he offered himself to the saint and was sent to Sinenga in Vastmanland. Eventually he founded a Benedictine abbey (Monkentorp or Munkthorp), which he governed as abbot. He is said to have been the first bishop of Všsteršss (Vasteras). David worked strenuously to evangelize the region and died peacefully in old age. Miracles were reported at his tomb (Benedictines, Farmer).
Donald of Ogilvy (AC)
(also known as Donivald, Domhnall)
Died early 8th century. Donald, a resident of Ogilvy in Forfarshire, Scotland, formed a religious group with his nine daughters (the "Nine Maidens") on the death of his wife. They entered a monastery in Abernathy after his death (Benedictines, Delaney, Farmer).
Edith of Polesworth, OSB Widow (AC)
Died 925? The identity of Saint Edith is very confused. She was definitely the widow of a king of Northumbria and died as a nun, perhaps the abbess, of Polesworth in Warwickshire. Some identify her as the sister of King Athelstan of England and wife of the Viking king, Sihtric. When Sihtric died the year after their marriage (926), she took the veil. Others believe that she was the sister of King Edgar the Peaceful and aunt of Saint Edith of Wilton. There is a possibility that there are two women named Edith of Polesworth (Attwater, Benedictines, Delaney, Encyclopedia).
Egino (Egon) of Augsburg, OSB Abbot (PC)
Born at Augsburg, Germany; died at Pisa, Italy, in 1122. Saint Egino was received at the Abbey of Saints Ulric and Afra in Augsburg as a child-oblate. Egino sided with the pope during the investiture controversy. For this reason, he was expelled by his abbot, but welcomed into Saint Blasien Abbey. In 1106, he was recalled to Augsburg and appointed abbot in 1109. He suffered a great deal at the hands of the simoniacal bishop Hermann and was forced to flee to Rome in 1120. On his return home, he died at Pisa in the monastery of his Camaldolese brethren (Benedictines).
Eternus of …vreux B (AC)
Died after 660. The ninth bishop of …vreux, France (Benedictines).
Eutropius, Zosima & Nonosa MM (RM)
Died c. 273. Martyrs of Porto near Rome under Aurelian (Benedictines).
Felix of Pavia BM (RM)
Date unknown. Saint Felix was a martyr of whom nothing is known. Some identify him with Saint Felix of Spoleto (Benedictines).
Blessed Francis Aranha, SJ M (AC)
Born in Braga, Portugal; died in 1583. Francis went to Goa in southern India with his uncle. There he joined the Society of Jesus in 1571 as a coadjutor. He served as a missionary on the islet of Salsette, where he was martyred with Blessed Rudolph Acquaviva (Benedictines).
Haruch of Werden, OSB B (AC)
Died c. 830. Abbot Saint Haruch was regionary bishop in Werden (Benedictines).
Blessed Ignatius de Azevedo and Companions, SJ MM (AC)
Died 1570; beatified in 1854. A band of 40 Portuguese and Spanish Jesuit missionaries, who were put to death by the Huguenot skipper, Jacques Sourie, near the Canary Islands, while on their way to the West Indies. Ignatius was the superior and leader of the band. He was born at Coimbra, where he joined the Society of Jesus in 1548. He was a religious of outstanding ability, highly revered by his superiors. Among the others are (sorry I can't find them all--it's an alpha listing, not by date):
Alphonsus de Vaena, born at Toledo, Spain, coadjutor.
Benedict de Castro, born in Chacim, diocese of Miranda, Portugal.
Dominic FernŠndez, born at Villa Viciosa, Portugal, lay-brother.
Francis Alvarez, born in Covilhao, Portugal, lay-brother.
Father Francis Magallanes, born in AlcŠzar do Sal, Portugal.
Francis Perez Godoy, born in Torrijos, diocese of Toledo, Spain, Jesuit novice.
Gregory Escrivano, born at LogroŮo, Old Castile, Jesuit coadjutor.
Father James Andrade, born at Pedrogao, diocese of Coimbra, Portugal.
John de Baeza, a Spaniard and temporal- coadjutor.
Father John FernŠndez, born at Lisbon.
John FernŠndez, born at Braga, Portugal, temporal-coadjutor.
Father John of San Martin, born at Toledo, Spain.
John de Mavorga, born in Aragon, temporal- coadjutor.
John de Zafra, born at Toledo, Spain, temporal-coadjutor.
Father Louis Correa, born at Evora, Portugal.
Mark Caldeira, born at Feira, diocese of Oporto, novice.
Nicholas Dinnis, born in Braganza, Portugal, novice.
Father Peter NuŮez, born in Fronteria, Portugal.
Peter Fontura, born at Braga, Portugal, lay-brother.
Simon Acosta, born at Oporto, Portugal, lay-brother.
Father Simon Lopez, born at Ourem, Portugal,
Stephen de Zudaira, born at Viscaya, Spain, lay-brother (Benedictines).
James of Nisibis B (RM)
Died at Nisibis, c. 338-340. A Syrian, James became a monk and about 308 was named the first bishop of Nisibis (Nusaybin), Mesopotamia. He built a basilica there and founded the theological school of Nisibis, which became famous. Little is known about his life except that he was a teacher of Saint Ephraem but his memory is highly honored in the East, especially in Syrian churches, and legends coalesced around his name. A fierce opponent of Arianism at the Council of Nicaea in 325 (according to the legend repeated in the Roman Martyrology, the prayers of James and Alexander of Constantinople were responsible for the death of Arius and his "bowels gushing out"), he was renowned for his exceptional holiness, learning, and miracles. A number of writings were formerly attributed to him in error (Attwater, Benedictines, Delaney).
Blessed Peter Berna, SJ M (AC)
Born at Ascona, Ticino, Switzerland; died in Goa in 1583. Peter studied at the German College in Rome and joined the Jesuits. He went to India with Blessed Rudolf Acquaviva, where he was ordained in Goa. After working as a missionary for many years he was martyred with Rudolf (Benedictines).
Blessed Peter Tuan M (AC)
Born in Tonkin (Vietnam) in 1766; died 1838; beatified in 1900. Peter was a native priest, who died in prison of wounds he received for the faith while awaiting the decree of decapitation (Benedictines).
Philip, Zeno, Narseus, & Companions MM (RM)
Date unknown. These martyrs of Alexandria included ten little children among the companions (Benedictines).
Plechelm of Guelderland B (RM)
Born in Northumberland; died c. 730. Plechelm was ordained a priest. He went to Rome with another Northumbrian priest, Saint Wiro, and a deacon named Otger. In Rome, Wiro and Plechelm were consecrated regionary bishops. After doing missionary work in Northumbria, they went to the Friesland area of the Netherlands, where they evangelized the inhabitants of the lower Meuse Valley under Saint Willibrord or Saint Swithbert, and built a church and cells at Odilienberg on land granted to them by Blessed Pepin of Herstal. They were martyred while preaching the Gospel (Benedictines, Delaney).
Pompilio (Pompilius) Mary Pirotti, Sc. P. (RM)
Born in Montecalvo, diocese of Benevento, Italy, in 1710; died in Lecce in Apulia, 1756; canonized in 1934. Pompilio became a clerk regular of the Piarist fathers (Scolopi) at Naples in 1727 and devoted his life to teaching. After being falsely accused, he was imprisoned, but was later completely vindicated (Benedictines, Encyclopedia).
Swithun (Swithin) of Winchester, OSB B (RM)
Born in Wessex, England; died at Winchester, England, July 2, 862. Saint Swithun was educated at the Old Abbey, Winchester, and was ordained (it is uncertain whether or not he was a monk). He became chaplain to King Egbert of the West Saxons, who appointed him tutor of his son Ethelwulf, and was one of the king's counselors. Swithun was named bishop of Winchester in 852 when Ethelwulf succeeded his father as king. Swithun built several churches and was known for his humility and his aid to the poor and needy. His veneration as a saint appears to date from the removal of his bones from the churchyard into the cathedral a century after his death. A long-held superstition declares it will rain for 40 days if it rains on his feast day, but the reason for and origin of this belief are unknown (Attwater, Benedictines, Delaney).
Vladimir of Kiev, King (AC)
(also known as Vladimir of Russia)
Born c. 955; died at Beresyx, Russia, 1015. Vladimir was the grandson of Saint Olga, an early convert to Christianity among the Scandinavian rulers of the province of Kiev, and the illegitimate son of Grand Duke Sviastoslav and his mistress, Malushka. He was given Novgorod to rule by Sviastoslav. When Sviastoslav died in 972, the three sons fought for the crown. Forced to flee to Scandinavia in 977 when his half brother Yaropolk defeated and killed another half brother, Oleg, and captured Novgorod. Vladimir returned with a Viking army, recaptured Novgorod, and captured and killed Yaropolk at Rodno in 980.
Notorious for his cruelty and barbarity, Vladimir was now ruler of Russia. He conquered Kherson in the Crimea in 988. That same year he proposed a military alliance with the Byzantine Emperor Basil II. After a good deal of hesitation, Vladimir was baptized in 989 in order to marry Anne, the Christian sister of the emperor. His conversion marked the beginning of Christianity in Russia.
Vladimir took his new religion very seriously and indeed sought to impose it by force on his people, not all of whom were willing to accept it. He reformed his own life (putting aside his five former wives), built schools and churches, destroyed idols, brought Greek and German missionaries to his realms, exchanged ambassadors with Rome, abolished or grated restricted capital punishment, gave lavish alms to the poor, and aided Saint Boniface in his mission to the Pechangs. In his later years he was troubled by rebellions led by the sons of his earlier marriages, but two of his sons by Anne, Romanus (Boris) and David (Gleb), became saints.
Vladimir died while leading an expedition against his rebellious son Yaroslav in Novgorod. Vladimir reportedly gave all his possessions to his friends and to the poor on his deathbed. His utter conversion resulted in a picture of him that caused later generations to look on Saint Vladimir as the first-born of the new Christian people of Russia and her borderland. He was esteemed as a saint and the subject of a cycle of folklore and heroic poems. A descendant of his, Vladimir Monomakh, married Gytha, the daughter of King Harold of England. Vladimir is the patron saint of Russian Catholics (Attwater, Benedictines, Delaney, Encyclopedia).
About Saints of the Day
These summaries were prepared in 1998 by St. Patrick's parishioner Katherine I. Rabenstein and are reproduced on www.saintpatrickdc.org with the permission of the author. Note that the content has not been updated since that time and represents the research of the author. An alphabetical index of all saints on our site is available. Source references are also available. HTML formatting © 2007-2008 by St. Patrick's Catholic Church, Washington, D.C.