Saint Teresa of Avila, Doctor
Agileus of Carthage M (RM)
Died c. 300. The relics of the African Saint Agileus, who suffered martyrdom at Carthage, were translated to Rome. He was held in great veneration in the Latin Church, especially in Africa. Saint Augustine preached a homily in honor of Agileus that is still extant (Benedictines).
Antiochus (Andeol) of Lyons B (RM)
5th century. When Saint Justus, bishop of Lyons, was discovered by a pilgrim from his see living with the solitaries in Egypt, the priest Antiochus was sent to seek him out and induce him to return to his see. The priest's efforts were futile. In fact, he stayed in Egypt for a time. After Saint Justus died in his arms, Antiochus returned to Lyons and was himself chosen bishop (Benedictines).
Aurelia of Strasburg, OSB V (RM)
Died 1027. Reputed to have been a French princess and relative of Hugh Capet, Aurelia lived for fifty-five years as a recluse near Strasburg, France, under the obedience of a Benedictine abbey. Aurelia is also often associated with Saint Wolfgang (Encyclopedia, Benedictines).
Callistus of Huesca M (AC)
Born in Huesca, Aragon, Spain; died 1003. Saint Callistus together with Saint Mercurialis passed over to France and died there fighting against the Saracens. They are still venerated in the diocese of Tarbes (Benedictines).
Cannatus of Marseilles B (AC)
5th century. Bishop of Marseilles after Saint Honoratus (Benedictines, Encyclopedia)
Euthymius the Younger, Abbot (AC)
(also known as Euthymius the Thessalonian; Euthymius the New)
Born at Opso near Ankara, Turkey (then Ancrya, Galatia), c. 824; died on Hiera, 886-898.
Baptized Nicetas, he married early and sired one daughter whom he named Anastasia (means 'Resurrection'). In 842, after being married only a year, he left his wife and baby in order to become a monk on Mt. Olympus in Bithynia by entering a laura, where he took the name Euthymius.
Shortly, he entered the monastery of Pissidion. The community was very disturbed by the troubles between the patriarch Ignatius at Constantinople and his rival Saint Photius. Abbot Nicholas was removed as abbot for supporting Patriarch Ignatius, who was deposed in 858.
So, in 859 Euthymius sought a quieter life on Mt. Athos, where he became a hermit with an in situ hermit, Joseph. Here he lived alone in a cave for three years.
In 863, Euthymius visited the tomb of a fellow ascetic from Olympus, Theodore, at Salonika and lived for a time in solitude on a tower (as a Stylite), preaching to the crowds. He was ordained a deacon there, returned to Mount Athos, but left to escape the crowds seeking him.
After a time on a small island with two companions, he returned to Mount Athos and lived there with Joseph until Joseph's death. In response to a dream he had of Joseph, he took two disciples, Ignatius and Ephrem, to Mount Peristera, where in 870 he re-founded the abbey of Saint Andrew at Peristera, east of Salonika, attracted numerous disciples, and served as their abbot for fourteen years.
He built another double monastery (men and women), which he turned over to the metropolitan of Salonika. When these houses were firmly established he put them in charge of his grandson and granddaughter respectively, and returned to Athos. He remained in Athos until a few months before his death, when he went to Hiera (Holy) Island with George, a fellow monk, and died there.
Saint Euthymius was credited with miraculous powers and the gift of prophecy, as related by his biographer Saint Basil, who was one of his monks at Saint Andrew's. He is called "the Younger" to distinguish him from Euthymius the Great (c. 378-473, Armenian) (Attwater, Benedictines, Delaney, Encyclopedia)
Leonard of Vandoeuvre, Abbot (AC)
Died c. 570. The hermit Leonard became the founder-abbot of Vandoeuvre, now Saint-Leonard-aux-Bois, near Le Mans (Benedictines).
Martyrs of Germany (RM)
Died 303. This is the same group of 300 martyrs that is commemorated with Saint Gereon as 318 martyrs (Benedictines).
Blessed Odilo of Stavelot, OSB Abbot (AC)
Died after 954. In 945, Blessed Odilo, a Benedictine monk of Gorze in Lorraine, was elected abbot of Stavelot-Malmédy. He raised the standard of studies and discipline in the abbey (Benedictines).
Sabinus of Catania B (AC)
Died c. 760. Saint Sabinus was bishop of Catania, Sicily, for only a few years before he resigned to become a hermit (Benedictines).
Severus of Trèves B (RM)
Born in Gaul; died c. 455. Saint Severus, a disciple of Saints Germanus of Auxerre and Lupus of Troyes, accompanied the former to Britain to oppose the Pelagian heresy. He preached the Gospel to the Germans on the lower Mosel and became bishop of Trèves 446 (Benedictines).
Teresa of Ávila, OCD Doctor V (RM)
(also known as Teresa of Jesus
Born in Ávila, Castile, Spain, March 28, 1515; died at Alba de Tormes, Spain, October 4, 1582 (October 14 according to the Gregorian calendar, which went into effect the next day and advanced the calendar 10 days); canonized in 1622 by Pope Gregory XV; declared the first female Doctor of the Church in 1970 by Pope Paul VI.
"From silly devotions, and from sour-faced saints, good Lord, deliver us!" --Saint Teresa.
A typical prayer from one of my favorite saints.
Editor's Note: You might be as confused as I was for a long time. Saint Thérèse of Lisieux took the religious name of Thérèse of the Child Jesus, while Saint Teresa of Ávila is Teresa of Jesus. Since they are often spelled similarly, both were Carmelites, have feast days close together, and now are both doctors, I used to mix them up when I looked at the calendar. Lisieux died at age 24 (Child Jesus); Ávila at a much later age (d. 1582).
Known for her practicality and good humor, Saint Teresa combined intelligence and obedience with mysticism. One of her favorite maxims was that "to give our Lord a perfect service Martha and Mary must combine." Of the 33 doctors of the Church (saints whose writing or preaching is outstanding for guiding the faithful in all ages), she, Saint Catherine of Siena, and Saint Thérèse of Lisieux are the only females.
Teresa's Interior Castles, one of the Western classics on mysticism, describes the journey of a soul towards God--likening it to God walking deeper into concatenated rooms cleaning out the cobwebs along the way.
She was born as Teresa de Cepeda Ahumada to an aristocratic family. Her father was believed to be a Jewish convert named don Alonso Sanchez de Cepeda. Her mother doña Beatriz Davila de Ahumada was his second wife. By all accounts, it was a huge, happy, devout family of 12 children, but Teresa was her father's favorite.
From childhood she was fascinated by the lives of the saints. Once she set out with her older brother Rodrigo for Moorish lands in the hopes of dying for the faith. They were met by an uncle at Adaja and returned to their parents. That missionary plan was followed by the decision of the two to become hermits. They would build hermitages in their orchard by piling up heaps of small stones. Teresa also played at building convents with her girl friends.
She was a gay, beautiful, and spoiled child, whose mother died when she was 14. She developed an interest in romances and fashions, which worried her father. Unable to cope with a teenager, her father sent her to a convent school of the Augustinian nuns in Ávila. She became ill after a year and a half and returned home in 1532, but by this time she was reading Saint Jerome's letters and had decided to become a nun. Fearing that she might lapse in her devotion, at 20 ran away to the Incarnation Convent of Carmelite nuns outside Ávila. Her father gave in, and she was professed a year later (1537).
When she was 24 (1538), Teresa became ill, and her father removed her from the convent. Her friend, Sister Jane Suarez, accompanied her home. Her illness, perhaps malaria, caused an attack of catalepsy so severe that she was given up for dead--they had even dug her grave. Left an invalid for three years, she long endured the effects of paralysis, which recurred for about a dozen years.
This was the worst of many ailments which included a fractured arm, numerous attacks of high fever, digestive ills, a quartan ague, neuralgia, quinsy--a generally disordered bodily constitution. All of which makes her accomplishments even more amazing.
Becoming a nun during the period was not a great sacrifice--vows of poverty were not enforced; lax monasteries were the best habitat for unmarriageable daughters of the wealthy Her convent, in keeping with the relaxed observances of the day, allowed visitors, and Teresa spent much of her time talking with them, to the point where she began to neglect prayer--she excused herself on the basis that she was not well--just as many of us rationalize our failings.
When Teresa was about age 42, after her father died, his confessor brought her to recognize the danger of her lapse, and she returned to a regular practice of private prayer. Father Domingo Banez first taught her that God can be loved in and through all things. During this period she read the Confessions of Saint Augustine and experienced a real conversion. From that time her vocation was strong. She withdrew from her gregarious pursuits and began to experience visions, particularly one in which women warned her about being tricked by imagination and the devil.
As the years passed, Teresa was frequently rapt in ecstasy in prayer. Among her spiritual experiences was the remarkable mystical piercing of her heart by a spear of divine love. She wrote a good deal about such things, but she did not give them undue importance, clearly discerning their dangers. She told people about her visions, vowing them to secrecy, but the word got out, making her an object of ridicule and persecution.
A contemporary and compatriot of Saint Ignatius of Loyola, founder of the Jesuits, through his spiritual sons, provided Teresa with her first real helpers and advisers in the mystical life. Their military sobriety appealed to her practical side, while her fervor for God was fed by the enthusiasm and unbridled penance of the Franciscan Saint Peter of Alcántara, who became her spiritual director in 1557.
When her visions became public knowledge, she was first introduced to a priest, who told her that she was being deluded by the devil-- that divine visions were not granted to people who lived a life as flawed as hers. Alarmed, she was encouraged to consult a Jesuit. She did so, and the Jesuit assured her that her visions were divine, but that she must strengthen her mental life. He advised her to resist the visions, and she did so, but in vain.
Another Jesuit, Father Balthasar Alvarez, recommended that she recite the Veni Creator Spiritus each day in the hopes of finding what God wished her to do. While doing so one day, she heard the words "I will not have you hold conversation with men, but with angels." She would frequently experience interior dialogues of great intensity, but under Father Alvarez she was persecuted.
She nearly fell under the Inquisition because she sought to teach men, such as Saint John of the Cross (Juan Yepes), whom she met later and for whom she served as spiritual director. They might have thought of her as an Illuminati, a movement based on the authority of private revelation and detachment from the sacraments (similar to the Beguines in northern Europe, whose false mysticism was condemned by the Council of Vienne, 1311-12). Her loyalty to the Church and love of the sacraments saved her from further scrutiny, however.
The Inquisitors had withdrawn vernacular versions of the Scripture and devotional books from women, and prohibited them from using interior prayer. Teresa wrote her account of her life and way of prayer to clear her name.
In 1557, she was visited by Saint Peter Alcántara, who told her that her visions were authentic but that she would never cease to suffer. She was said to levitate upon occasion. She experienced mystical marriages, and her heart was pierced. She made a vow that she would always do everything that seemed to be the most perfect and most pleasing to God.
Again, the Carmelites at that time were very relaxed in their observance. They socialized with citizens and were free to come and go from the convent. When her niece began to talk of establishing a small community with a stricter life, Teresa took this to be a sign from God. She proposed to open such a house and was supported in her goal by her confessor Saint Peter and others, such as Saint Luis Beltran, but at the last minute, the provincial prior withdrew his permission due to opposition. She was secretly encouraged by a Dominican, however, and Teresa's married sister, Doña Juana de Ahumada, began to build a convent in 1561, pretending that it was to be a house for herself.
Approval for the establishment finally came from Rome and the house of Saint Joseph opened in 1562, with Teresa's niece among the 13 nuns who joined. The townspeople were upset, suspicious of innovation, and apprehensive that the convent would be a financial burden. A Dominican persuaded them not to tear it down. Supporters sent a priest to speak for the monastery to the royal council, and eventually opposition died down.
The prior general of the Carmelites, Father Rubeo, visited Teresa in 1567 and was so impressed with her that he gave her permission to found other convents. In addition, he gave her a license to found two houses of reformed friars--'Contemplative Carmelites.'
She lived at Saint Joseph's for five years, then opened a second convent in Medina del Campo, and a third in the town of Malagon. She then travelled to Madrid. She founded convents at Valladolid and Toledo, and a monastery for men in the village of Duruelo in 1568, and another, and a nunnery, at Pastrana in 1569. She then passed over the responsibility for further houses for men to Saint John of the Cross. In 1570, she opened another foundation in Salamanca.
In addition to being an able administrator, she was very witty and kind. She thought it was of great importance to choose novices prudently. Intelligence was one of her top criteria. She always acted as a model to her nuns, doing household tasks along with the others, and never eating red meat. She could be warm and affectionate. "For the love of God get well," she wrote to a sick prioress, "eat enough and do not be alone or think too much." She had a wonderful sense of humor; because she was short, she described herself as "half a friar."
The convent was strictly enclosed and followed a regimen of austerity, including almost constant silence. The nuns wore coarse habits and sandals instead of shoes, and thus were called 'Discalced' ('without shoes').
The 17 Carmels established by Saint Teresa throughout Spain and France were distinct from most convents of the period. The Carmelites were provided a room of their own, books, lectures, and time for study or contemplative prayer. There was a great deal of stress on growing in knowledge and love of God, similar to that in the Beguine communities. The prioress was the spiritual and administrative director of the Carmel. The nuns were self- governing, unlike most convents of the time.
Teresa is the classical example of one who combined the life of religious contemplation with an intense activity and common-sense efficiency in 'practical' affairs. She recorded the results of both in literary form. She wrote the Way of Perfection and the book of Foundations for the direction of her religious sisters. Teresa writes with authority on prayer as being loving rather than thinking. Real vocal prayer, according to today's saint in The Way of Perfection, requires the attention of the mind and the heart. Her mystical writing, the Interior Castle, was revolutionary, for it was the first work to point to the existence of states between prayer and contemplation.
For three years her active work in Carmelite reform was delayed by her appointment by Pope Saint Pius V, which she had obediently to accept, as prioress of the "calced" Carmelite Convent of the Incarnation in Ávila, which she had left about 10 years earlier to start her convent of the discalced nuns in Ávila. She needed both piety and statesmanship in meeting the initial resistance of the nuns whom she had to direct: "My ladies, have no misgivings as to how I shall govern you; for, though I have thus far lived among and governed nuns who are discalced, I know well, through the Lord's goodness, the way to govern those who are not."
Authorities who resisted her reforming efforts referred to her as 'the roving nun.' The prior general, who had supported Teresa, now turned against the reforms and held a general chapter at Piacenza, Italy, in 1575, to restrict it. Saint John of the Cross was imprisoned in a monastery, and Teresa was told to retire to one of her convents during the struggle. She appealed to contacts she had made in the world, and King Philip II came to her rescue. In 1580 an order from Pope Gregory XIII, at the instigation of King Philip, exempted the Reformed Carmelites from the jurisdiction of the Mitigated Carmelites; each division was to have its own provincial.
By this time, Teresa's health had broken down. She open her final house, her seventeenth, at Burgos, and wished to return to Ávila, but was persuaded to visit Alba de Tormes at the request of the duchess. When she arrived, Teresa had to take to her bed. She died three days later.
It is likely that Teresa was of Jewish blood--which made the Inquisition that much more terrifying because it was established to destroy the remnants of Judaism after the ousting of the Moors in 1492, just years before her birth. The Carmelites had many 'conversos' or Jewish and Islamic converts, but Teresa forbade any discussion of ancestry within the Carmel.
One of my favorite stories occurs as Teresa journeys to France to found a Carmel there. It was raining and miserable outside and the wheel of her carriage broke in a rut, tossing her outside. She complains to God, "If this is how you treat Your friends, no wonder You have so few."
She was successful in spreading her science of prayer. French mysticism, "witnesses to the life-giving character of her career. The appearance in France of her writings, and the establishment in Paris of Carmelite nuns who the saint herself had trained . . . were decisive factors in its development. Directly or indirectly, all the great personalities of this epoch came into touch with Carmel and were salted by its salt. . . ." (Underhill, p. 188).
Madame Acarie (Marie of the Incarnation), who was destined to introduce Teresian ideals into France, had two dream-like visions of Saint Teresa, "who announced that it was God's will that she should bring the reformed Carmelites to Paris" (Underhill, p. 193). Acarie, encouraged by Saint Francis de Sales, took into her house and trained postulants who became the first French Carmelite nuns (Bentley, Delaney, Markus, Tsanoff, Underhill, White).
Some other sayings:
"God treats his friends terribly, though he does them no wrong in this, since he treated his Son in the same way."
"Though we do not have our Lord with us in bodily presence, we have our neighbor, who, for the ends of love and loving service, is as good as our Lord himself."
Catholic Dispatch posted a series of maxims of Saint Teresa that are well worth considering in relation to our own spiritual lives:
Untilled ground, however rich, will bring forth thistles and thorns; so also, the mind of man.
Speak well of all that is spiritual, such as religious, priests, and hermits.
Let your words be few when in the midst of many.
Be modest in all your words and works.
Never be obstinate, especially in things of no moment.
In speaking to others be always calm and cheerful.
Never make a jest of anything.
Never rebuke any one but with discretion, and humility, and self-abasement.
Bend yourself to the temper of whomever is speaking to you: be merry with the mirthful, sorrowful with the sad: in a word, make yourself all things to all, to gain all.
Never say anything you have not well considered and earnestly commended to our Lord, that nothing may be spoken which shall be displeasing to Him.
Never defend yourself unless there be very good reasons for it.
Never mention anything concerning yourself which men may think is praiseworthy, such as learning, goodness, birth, unless it's done with a hope of going good thereby, and then let it be done with humility, remembering that these are gifts of God.
Never exaggerate, but speak your mind in simplicity.
In all talking and conversation let something be always said of spiritual things, and so shall all idle words and evil-speaking be avoided.
Never assert anything without being first assured of it.
Never come forward to give your own opinion about anything unless asked to do so, or charity requires it.
When any one is speaking of spiritual things do you listen humbly and like a learner, and take to yourself the good that is spoken.
Make known to your superior and confessor all your temptations, imperfections, and dislikes, that he may give you counsel and help you to overcome them.
Do not stay out of your cell, nor go forth from it without cause, and when you do go out beg God for the grace not to offend him.
Never eat or drink except at the usual times, and then give earnest thanks to God.
Do all you do as if you really did it for His Majesty: a soul makes great gains thereby.
Never listen to, or say, evil of any one except of yourself, and when that gives you pleasure you are making great progress.
Whatever you do, offer it up to God, and pray it may be for His honor and glory.
In your mirth refrain from immoderate laughter, and let it be humble, modest, kindly, and edifying.
Imagine yourself always to be the servant of all, and look upon all as if they were Christ our Lord in person; and so shall you do Him honor and reverence.
Be ever ready to perform the duties of obedience, as if Jesus, in the person of the prior or superior, had laid His commands on you.
In all your actions, and at every hour, examine your conscience; and, having discerned your faults, strive, by the help of God, to amend them, and by this way you shall attain to perfection.
Do not think of the faults of others, but of what is good in them and faulty in yourself.
Desire earnestly always to suffer for God in every thing and on every occasion.
Offer yourself unto God fifty times a day, and that with great fervor and longing after God.
Call to mind continually throughout the day the matter of the morning meditation: be very careful herein, for it will do you much good.
Lay up carefully what our Lord may say to you, and act upon the desires He may have filled you with in prayer.
Always avoid singularity to the utmost of your power, for it does great harm in a community.
Read often the rules and constitutions of the order, and observe in sincerity.
In all created things discern the providence and wisdom of God, and in all things give Him thanks.
Withhold your heart from all things: seek God, and you will find Him.
Do not show signs of devotion outwardly when you have none within, but you may lawfully hide the want thereof.
Don't let not your inward devotion be visible unless in great necessity: St.
Francis and St. Bernard used to say, "My secret is mine."
Never complain of the food, whether it be well or ill dressed; remembering the gall and vinegar of Jesus Christ.
Speak to no one at table, and lift not your eyes to another.
Think of the table of heaven, and of the food thereon-- God Himself: think of the guests, the angels: lift up your eyes to that table, longing for it.
In the presence of your superior--you should see Jesus Christ in him--utter not a word that is not necessary, and that with great reverence.
Never do anything that you can not do in the presence of all.
Do not compare one person with another: it is a hateful thing to do.
When rebuked for anything receive the rebuke with inward and outward humility, and pray to God for the person who gives the rebuke.
When one superior bids you do a certain thing, do not say that another superior has given a contrary order; but obey in what you are commanded, and consider that the intentions of all are good.
Be not curious about matters that do not concern you; never speak of them, and do not ask about them.
Keep in mind your past life and present lukewarmness, to bewail them, and what is still wanting to you for your going into heaven, that you might live in fear, which is a source of great blessings.
What those in the house bid you do, do always, unless it be against obedience; and answer them humbly and gently.
Ask for nothing particular in the way of food or raiment, unless there be great need.
Never cease to humble and mortify yourself in all things, even unto death.
Habitually make many acts of love, for they set the soul on fire and make it gentle.
Make acts of all the other virtues.
Offer every thing to the Father Everlasting, in union with the merits of His Son Jesus Christ.
Be kind to all and severe to yourself.
On the days kept in honor of the saints consider their virtues, and beg the like of God.
Be very exact every night in your examination of conscience.
The morning of communion remember in your prayer that you are about to receive God, notwithstanding your wretchedness; and in your prayer at night that you have received Him.
Never when in authority rebuke any one in anger, but only when anger has passed away; and so shall the rebuke bring forth good fruit.
Strive earnestly after perfection and devotion, and by the help thereof you will do all things.
Exercise yourself much in the fear of our Lord, for that will make the soul contrite and humble.
Consider seriously how quickly people change, and how little trust is to be had in them; and cleave fast unto God, who doesn't change.
As to the affairs of your soul, labor to have a confessor who is spiritual and learned, make them known unto him, and abide by his judgment throughout.
Each time of communion beg some gift of God, by the compassion wherewith He has entered your poor soul.
Though you have recourse to many saints as your intercessors, go specially to St. Joseph, for he has great power with God.
In times of sorrow and trouble don't stop doing the good works of prayer and penance which you are in the habit of doing, for Satan is striving to make you uneasy, and then to abandon them; on the contrary, apply yourself thereunto more earnestly than before, and you will see quickly our Lord will come to your succor.
Never make your temptations and imperfections known to those in the community whose progress is the least, for that will hurt yourself and the others, but only to those most advanced in perfection.
Remember that you have but one soul; that you can die but once; that you have but one life, which is short, and peculiar to yourself; that there is but one blessedness, and that for ever; and you will despise many things.
Let your desire be the vision of God, your fear the loss of Him, your sorrow His absence, and your joy in that which may take you to Him; and your life shall be in great peace.
In art, Saint Teresa is shown as a Carmelite with her heart inscribed with IHS pierced by an angel with an arrow (Appleton, Roeder). These are possible variations: (1) Christ himself shoots the arrow; (2) Christ appears to her carrying the Cross; (3) receiving from Jesus a cross, from the Virgin a crown, and from Saint Joseph a lily; (4) the Crucifix may have diamonds for wounds; (5) interceding for souls in Purgatory (normally these souls are represented by mice); (6) crowned with thorns; (7) IHS on her heart; or (8) with a pen and book (Roeder).
Saint Teresa is the patroness of lace-makers, Spanish Catholic writers, the Spanish army and commissariat, and headache sufferers (perhaps due to her own chronic ill health). She is invoked by those in need of grace (Roeder, White).
Writings of St. Teresa:
Life (her autobiography)
The Book of the Foundations
The Way of Perfection
The Interior Castle
Letters, 4 vols., tr. by the Benedictines of Stanbrook, London, 1919-1924
Minor Works, tr. by the Benedictines of Stanbrook, London, 1913
Teresa of Ávila. The Collected Works, 3 vols. Kieran Kavanaugh, OCD and Otilio
Rodriguez, OCD (tr.). Washington, DC: Institute of Carmelite Studies, 1980.
----. (1902). The letters of St. Teresa. John Dalton (tr.) London: Thos. Baker.
Thecla of Kitzingen (Tecla of England), OSB Abbess (RM)
Born in England; died c. 790; feast day recorded also as September 27 and 28. Saint Thecla, a Benedictine nun of Wimborne Abbey (Dorsetshire) under Saint Tetta, joined the mission to Germany under her relative, Saint Lioba. For a time, Saint Thecla was a nun at Tauberbischofsheim. Saint Boniface named her the first abbess of Ochsenfürt, and then of the convent of Kitzingen, three miles from Würzburg on the Main, over which she ruled for many years. Her relics remained at Kitzingen until they were scattered during the Peasants' War of the 16th century (Attwater, Benedictines, Encyclopedia, Farmer, Husenbeth).
Blessed Willa of Nonnberg, OSB Hermit (AC)
Died c. 1050. A Benedictine nun at Nonnberg (near Salzburg), who died a recluse (Benedictines).
About Saints of the Day
These summaries were prepared in 1998 by St. Patrick's parishioner Katherine I. Rabenstein and are reproduced on www.saintpatrickdc.org with the permission of the author. Note that the content has not been updated since that time and represents the research of the author. An alphabetical index of all saints on our site is available. Source references are also available. HTML formatting © 2007-2008 by St. Patrick's Catholic Church, Washington, D.C.