Saint Francis Xavier Cabrini
Abbo of Fleury OSB, Abbot M (AC)
Born near Orléans, France, c. 945; died 1004. Saint Abbo studied in Paris, Rheims, and Orléans. Finally, he settled at the monastery of Fleury-sur-Loire (Saint-Benoît-sur- Loire). In about 986, Saint Oswald of Worcester invited him to became director of the monastery school in Ramsey, Huntingdonshire, England. Two years later Abbo returned to Fleury to resume his studies.
In 988, Abbo was elected abbot of Fleury, where he introduced the Cluniac observance; however, the election was disputed. The results were not finally accepted until quite some time later through the help of Gerbert, who later became Pope Sylvester II in 999.
Abbo fought for monastic independence of bishops, was mediator between the pope and the king of France, and was active in settling disputes in various monasteries. He was murdered while attempting to settle a dispute among the monks at La Réole in Gascony. Abbo was widely known as a scholar in astronomy, mathematics, and philosophy, wrote a Life of Saint Edmund, and edited a collection of canons (Benedictines, Delaney).
Antoninus, Zebinas, Germanus & Ennatha MM (RM)
Died 297. This quartet was martyred by Galerius, to whom they had dared to preach the Gospel. The virgin Ennatha was burned alive, while the others were beheaded (Benedictines, Encyclopedia).
Arcadius, Paschasius, Probus, Eutychian & Paulillus MM (RM)
Died 437. All of these martyrs were Spaniards, who were exiled by the Vandal Arian King Genseric to Africa, where they became the protomartyrs of the Vandal persecution. Paulillus was only a boy, the little brother of Paschasius and Eutychian. "As he could not be turned from the Catholic faith he was long beaten with rods, and condemned to the basest servitude" (Benedictines).
Brice of Tours B (RM)
(also known as Brictio, Britius, Brixius)
Died 444. God loves variety. He doesn't mass-produce his saints. Every saint is unique, for each is the result of a new idea. As the liturgy says: Non est inventus similis illis--there are no two exactly alike. It is we with our lack of imagination, who paint the same haloes on all the saints.
God loves variety. And He has a remarkable sense of humor. Sometimes He seemingly takes mischievous pleasure in placing side by side two saints whose characters should make it impossible for them to get along together. No doubt God wants to teach them humility, by showing them that each represents only a small part of the mystery of saintliness; and perhaps God also wants to reassure us, by telling us that if there are many mansions in heaven, there are also many roads leading there.
And so it was in the 4th century in Touraine, France. God set the impeccable Saint Martin of Tours side- by-side with the insufferable Saint Brice. Unlike his master, Brice was a proud, ambitious, and, perhaps, even licentious cleric.
When still very young, Brice entered the monastery that Martin had founded at Marmoûtier, just outside Tours. At first he was just an ordinary, boisterous young monk, but soon he grew up. By the time he was 18, he had become a deacon and had his own stables and slaves.
Martin, whose enemies reproached him for his excessive poverty and for what Gaston Boissier has called his 'rather democratic' outlook, was worried about the way the young deacon was behaving and remonstrated him like a father.
Brice bristled and answered the bishop with biting sarcasm. How could a barbarian from the wilds of Hungary tell him, who had been born on the banks of the Loire, how to behave? Was he, who had been educated properly, to take instruction from an improperly educated old legionary? Anyone who has ever dealt with teenagers can imagine the encounter.
Unlike most adults, however, Martin listened calmly and replied gently. He even predicted that Brice would one day become bishop, but that his episcopate would not be a peaceful one. The vicars- general and the canons of Tours, who didn't relish the idea of one day being ruled by this spitfire, urged Martin to send him packing. But Martin replied, "If Christ put up with Judas, then surely I can put up with Brice."
Brice continued to hold Martin in contempt, but despite Brice's attitude Martin dealt patiently with him, and eventually Brice repented with great remorse and begged Martin's forgiveness.
When Martin died, Brice succeeded him in 397 as bishop of Tours-- not by tricks or intrigue but by the regular open vote of the people. For 30 years Brice taught, baptized, confirmed, administered, and fulfilled all his duties as bishop. Several times Brice was accused of laxness but nothing really extraordinary happened, none of those miracles or scandals that were as dear to the hearts of the chroniclers then as they are to journalists today.
Nevertheless, Brice slept badly; he couldn't forget that Martin had predicted that he would be put to the test, and with a man like Martin there wasn't the slightest hope that the prediction would prove false. It might be late coming, but come it would. And every day for 30 years Brice waited for the fulfillment of the prophecy. It was uncomfortable but God had chosen it as a way of deflating the excessive conceit of youth.
Then it happened. One morning the rumor ran through the streets of Tours that a seamstress belonging to the bishop's palace had borne him a son. What a windfall for the town's gossips!
The accusation was false, but how to prove it? Since blood tests for paternity hadn't been discovered, Brice had to find another way. He had the infant brought to him, and, in his most episcopal voice, said, "I admonish you in the name of Jesus Christ to say, in the presence of everybody, if I am the man who fathered you." To which the baby replied, "You are not my father."
Such precociousness seemed suspicious to those present, and they thought that there must be some trick (unless it is we who have been tricked by Saint Gregory of Tours, who recorded the story). At any rate Brice's people were so far from being convinced that they expelled their bishop by physical force.
Brice didn't resist, for he realized that Martin's prophecy was now being fulfilled. About 430, he used his free time to make a journey ad limina, which took him seven years. During his 'exile' Brice had an opportunity to repent of his ways and completely changed his lifestyle. On his way back home he founded several new Christian centers.
When the seven years had passed, Brice returned to Tours. Just as he was coming into sight of the town, a providential fever killed the bishop who had been elected his successor. Not wanting to be lacking in politeness, Brice quickened his step and arrived in time to perform the funeral rites for this most tactful of bishops. He then resumed the episcopate himself for the remaining years of his life and ruled with humility, holiness, and ability.
At his death he was held to be a saint, and rightly so, such was the change of his manners after his conversion in Rome. He was buried in the same church as Saint Martin, for now that they were both saints there was no reason why they shouldn't sleep side-by- side. God had destined them to be together and to serve as foundations for the church of Tours. By joining the serenity of Martin to the vigor of Brice, harmony was ensured for a town where the Loire and Vouvray meet (Attwater, Benedictines, Delaney, Encyclopedia).
In art Saint Brice carries hot coals in his vestments. Sometimes he is pictured as (1) carrying fire in his hand; (2) with a child in his arms or near him; or (3) with Saint Martin of Tours (because he was a disciple of Saint Martin) (Roeder).
Dear Lord, grant us a spirit that is not bound by our own ideas and preferences. Grant that we may be able to appreciate in others what we lack in ourselves. O Lord, grant that we may understand that every saint must be a unique praise of Your glory.
Caillin of Ferns B (AC)
7th century. Caillin is associated with Saint Aidan (Maidhoc) of Ferns. It is said that Caillin turned certain unbelieving Druids into stones (Benedictines, Montague).
Columba of Cornwall VM (AC)
Date unknown. Columba, the patron saint of two parishes in Cornwall, is said to have been a Christian maiden put to death by a heathen king of Cornwall (Benedictines).
Dalmatius of Rodez B (AC)
Died 580. Bishop Dalmatius of Rodez, France, (524-580) suffered much at the hands of the Arian Visigoth King Amalric (Benedictines).
Devinicus of Caithness B (AC)
(also known as Denick, Teavneck)
6th century. In his old age this native of northern Scotland associated himself with the missionary work of Saints Columba and Machar and evangelized Caithness. He is reputed to have been a bishop (Benedictines).
Didacus of Alcalà, OFM (RM)
(also known as Diego, Diaz)
Born near Seville, Spain, c. 1400; died at Alcalà de Henares, 1463; canonized 1588. Born of poor parents, the young Diego lived for a time as a solitary and then joined the Franciscans as a lay brother at Arrizafa.
Although remaining a lay brother, Diego was appointed doorkeeper of Fuerteventura friary in the Canary Islands because of his ability and goodness. Here he did great work among the poor, and earned such a reputation for holiness that in 1445 he was chosen as superior of the house for a term.
Later he was recalled to Spain, and passed the last 13 years of his life in humble duties at various houses of his order in Spain. After a pilgrimage to Rome in 1450, died at the friary of Alcalà in Castile. Diego's chief devotion was to Our Lord in the Blessed Sacrament of the Altar (Attwater, Benedictines, Encyclopedia).
Eugenius of Toledo B (RM)
(also known as Eugene II)
Born in Toledo, Spain; died 657. Eugenius, a Spanish Goth, was successively a cleric under Saint Helladius, a monk of Saint Engracia at Saragossa, and then the archdeacon of Saint Braulio in Toledo. Finally, in 646, he was raised to the primatial see of Toledo. He was a gifted poet and musician, and most zealous for all that pertained to divine worship (Benedictines).
Frances Xavier Cabrini V (AC)
Born at Sant'Angelo Lodigiano (diocese of Lodi), Lombardy, Italy, on July 15, 1850; died in Chicago, Illinois, on December 22, 1917; beatified in 1938; canonized on July 7, 1946; feast day was December 22.
The life of Saint Frances is another remarkable story that teaches us the value of persistence in hope. I've seen a photograph of her--she was absolutely gorgeous with her dark hair, broad mouth, and shining, deep eyes. She was said to be small of stature and big of spirit. Naturalized in 1909, she is the first U.S. citizen to be canonized, but Francesca Maria was the Italian born 13th child of Augustine Cabrini, a farmer, and his Milanese wife Stella Oldini.
On the day she was born, a flock of white doves flew down to the farm where her father was threshing grain.
Several times in her later life flocks of white birds appeared. Francesca loved them and compared them to angels or souls she would help save, or to new sisters coming to join her community.
Her parents baptized her Maria Francesca Saverio after the missionary saint Francis Xavier. Wittingly or not, it seems that her destiny was mapped out early. Because her mother's health was delicate, Francesca was taught mainly by her elder sister Rosa, a school teacher, and was encouraged by her uncle, Father Oldini, to become a foreign missionary. He knew her secret childhood game of filling paper boats with violets and setting them loose in the river as she pretended that the violets were missionaries going to convert people in far-off lands. Her parents wanted her to be a teacher, however, and sent her to a convent boarding school at Arluno.
As a child she learned to pray well by the example of her family. Her mother rose early to pray for an hour before going to Mass, and at the end of the day she prayed for another hour. Francesca would frequently steal away from her schoolmates to pray by herself in some quiet spot.
In 1863, at the age of 13, Francesca entered the convent of the Sacred Heart at Arluna, where she made a vow of virginity. When she graduated with honors at age 18, she was fully qualified as a teacher. At 20 she was orphaned, and felt called to be a nun. Like several saints before her, however, no one seemed to want her because her health was so poor that no one thought she would live very long, and rather discounted her as far as being of much use to her order.
By the time Francesca was 21, she had suffered much: in addition to the loss of her parents, 10 of her siblings died. From 1868 to 1872, she worked hard nursing the sick poor in her hometown, including a woman who died of cancer. She also had to deal with her own illness (smallpox) in 1871. These hardships combined to teach her that everyone in this world has a cross to carry.
After her recovery (1872) she began to teach in the public school of Vidardo. In 1874 after being turned down by the Sacred Heart nuns who taught her and another congregation, Don Serrati, the priest in whose school she was teaching, invited Francesca to help manage a small orphanage at Codogno in the diocese of Lodi. The House of Providence had been mismanaged by its foundress the eccentric Antonia Tondini.
Msgr. Serrati and the bishop of Todi, recognizing her intense love of God and bold holiness, and her deep love for the poor, invited her to turn the institution into a religious community. Reluctantly, she agreed. From Antonia, Francesca received only trouble and abuse, but she persisted. With seven recruits, she took her first vows in 1877. The bishop made her superioress.
Antonia's behavior became worse--she was thought to have become unbalanced--but Francesca persevered for another three years. Then the bishop himself gave up hope and closed the institution. That was according to Francesca's desires--more than anything else, she wanted to be a missionary to China. Thus, in 1880, the bishop counselled her to found a congregation of missionary sisters, since that was what she wanted to be and he didn't know of any such order. Francesca moved to an abandoned Franciscan friary at Codogno, and drew up a rule for the community. Its main object was to be the Christian education of girls in Catholic schismatic or pagan countries under the title of Missionary Sisters of the Sacred Heart.
Francesca and her sisters placed their complete trust in God. When there was no money to provide food, money miraculously appeared. When there was no milk for the orphans, a formerly empty container brimmed with milk. When a nun was again sent to an empty breadbox, the box was again full. God can never be outdone in his generosity. He promised that He would provide for our needs and He does for those who trust Him.
The same year the rule was approved, a daughter house was opened at Grumello. The sisters of the Sacred Heart soon spread to Milan. Francesca was a demanding mistress. She got up very early, an hour before the sisters who also got up early. Four hours daily were spent in prayer by each sister regardless of what else needed to be done.
In 1887, Francesca went to Rome to gain approbation of her congregation and permission to open a house in Rome. After an initially unsuccessful interview with the cardinal vicar--the congregation was deemed too young for approval--Francesca won him over. She asked to open two houses in Rome, a free school and a children's home, and the first decree of approval of the Missionary Sisters was issued in 1888.
Bishop Scalabrini of Piacenza, who had established the Society of Saint Charles to work among Italian immigrants in America, suggested that Francesca travel there to help these priests. Francesca longed to evangelize China, but realized that Italian immigrants in the U.S.--50,000 in New York alone--needed all the help that her order could give them. Archbishop Corrigan of New York sent her a formal invitation, so she decided to consult with the pope. In 1889, Pope Leo XIII gave his blessing to the enterprise. Despite her fear of water caused by a childhood accident, she set off across the Atlantic, landing in New York in 1889 (age 39) with six of her sisters.
Things did not get off to a good start, even with the archbishop's patronage and warm welcome. Apparently, the orphanage she was to have managed was abandoned because of a dispute with the benefactress. There was much to be done: A whole nation of orphans and elderly to be comforted--a daunting task with no money and no hope of any in sight. The archbishop suggested that she return home. Francesca replied that the pope had sent her to America and so she must stay. Within a few weeks Francesca had mended the rift, found a house for the sisters, and started the orphanage.
As with every difficulty she encountered throughout her life, with each new trial she would ask, "Who is doing this? We?--or Our Lord?" Even so, she encouraged her sisters to use efficiency and business acumen in the cause of charity, which won the respect of the most hard-headed and hard-hearted Americans.
Later that year she revisited Italy, as she would almost every year to bring back new missionaries. This trip she took with her the first two Italo-American recruits to the congregation. Nine months later she returned, bringing reinforcements to take over West Park, on the Hudson, from the Society of Jesus. The orphanage was transferred to this house, which became the motherhouse and novitiate of the order in the U.S.
In addition to the 24 times she crossed the Atlantic, Francesca travelled throughout the Americas for 28 years--from coast to coast in the U.S. by train and on muleback across the Andes. First she went to Managua, Nicaragua, where under sometimes dangerous circumstances she took over an orphanage and opened a boarding house. On her way back, she visited New Orleans, and there made another new foundation.
Francesca was slow in learning English, but she had great business acumen. She was sometimes overly strict and self-righteous-- rejecting illegitimate children from her fee-paying schools, for example--and she was slow to recognize that non-Catholics could truly mean well.
In 1892 one of Francesca's greatest undertakings--Columbus Hospital--was opened in New York. After another visit to Italy, she travelled to Costa Rica, Panama, Chile, and Brazil. In Buenos Aires, Argentina, she opened a school for girls.
In 1900 Francesca visited Pope Leo XIII again. He was then 90 years old. One day he said to her, "Let us work, Cabrini, let us work, and what a heaven will be ours!" Then after he had passed, he turned around and looked at her again. "Let us work, Cabrini!" he said, his kind old face all wreathed in smiles.
After her next trip to Italy, she travelled to France, opening her first European houses outside Italy. By 1907, when the order was finally approved, there were over 1,000 members in eight countries (including Britain, Spain, and Latin America), founded more than fifty houses, and numerous free schools, high schools, fifty hospitals (including four of the greats), and other institutions. At the time of her death, the congregation had grown to 67 houses with over 4,000 sisters.
This sickly woman's health finally began to fail in 1911, but she kept going even through the war. On December 21, 1917, fearing that the children in one of her schools might miss their usual treat of candy for Christmas, Francesca began to make up little parcels with her own hands. "Let's hurry," she said to her sisters, "the time is short, and I want to be sure that the children will have their treat." The time was indeed short for she died of malaria the very next day in the Chicago convent.
At first her relics were placed at West Park, Illinois. Her body now rests in the chapel of the Mother Cabrini High School in New York City, where you can see it in a state of marvellous preservation in its glass casket. The work begun for Italian immigrants was carried on for all without distinction (including convicts in Sing-Sing prison) (Attwater, Bentley, Benedictines, Delaney, Encyclopedia, Girzone, Melady, Schamoni, Stanbrook, White).
Because she was open to God, He used her to fulfill His purpose. We never know how God is going to use us; therefore, we have to wait expectantly, openly to see what He has planned. We can be sure that He won't disappoint us. God has a way of turning each attentive life into an adventure that brings joy and satisfaction and peace to His servant and those around him.
In 1946, Pope Pius XII named her patroness of all emigrants and immigrants.
Gredifael of Wales (AC)
7th century. A Breton or Welsh saint who accompanied Saint Padarn from Brittany to Wales. He is said to have been abbot of Whitland in Pembrokeshire (Benedictines).
Homobonus of Cremona (RM)
(also known as Homobonius)
Born in Cremona, Lombardy, Italy; died November 13, 1197; canonized on January 12, 1199, by Pope Innocent III. Son of a wealthy merchant, Homobonus Tucingo was prophetically baptized Uomobuono, 'good man.' His father taught him the business and he successfully managed it after his father's death. He married and led a life of the utmost rectitude and integrity. Homobonus was known for his charity and concern for the poor because he devoted a large part of his profits to the relief of those in want, some of whom he looked after in his own house. Morning and evening he could be found in Saint Giles Church in Cremona, where, in fact, he died suddenly on November 13 while attending Mass. His virtues were not appreciated by his wife until after his death, when the people of Cremona clamored for his canonization which was decreed two years later by Pope Innocent III (Attwater, Benedictines, Delaney, Encyclopedia, Schamoni).
In art he is a merchant surrounded by beggars and the sick. At times there is a flask of wine near him or angels are shown making garments for him. He is the patron of burghers, merchants, smiths, tailors, clothworkers, and shoemakers. Venerated at Cremona (Delaney, Roeder).
Kilian of Aubigny (RM)
(also known as Chillianus, Chillien, Chillen)
Born in Ireland; 7th century. Saint Kilian, kinsman of Saint Fiacre, became a missionary in France almost by accident. On his return from a pilgrimage to Rome, Kilian stopped to visit Fiacre in his solitude in Brie. There he joined his near relative in his contemplation and evangelizing efforts. Then Bishop Saint Faro of Meaux sent him out to preach the Gospel on his own in the Artois, where he met with success. His body was enshrined at Aubigny, near Arras, in the monastery church he established, where he is the object of great veneration. Styled a bishop in Colgan's manuscript, Kilian is said to have been the only Irishman to have been offered the papacy--which he declined (Benedictines, Husenbeth, Montague).
Blessed Mark of Scala, OSB Abbot (AC)
Died c. 1280. A Benedictine abbot of Sant'Angelo di Scala of the Congregation of Montevergine (Benedictines).
Maxellendis of Caudry VM (AC)
Died c. 670. Saint Maxellendis was stabbed to death at Caudry, near Cambrai, by Lord Hardouin of Solesmes, to whom she was betrothed by her parents. Having paid the bride-price then traditional, he killed her in a fit of rage when she told him she wanted to be a nun (Benedictines, Encyclopedia).
Mitrius of Aix M (RM)
(also known as Mitre, Metre, Merre)
Died 314. Although no authentic acta of Saint Mitrius have survived to our time, the Greek slave of a tyrannical master at Aix-en-Provence is given honorable mention by Saint Gregory of Tours. He was savagely ill-used by his master and by his fellow-slaves, and finally beheaded during the reign of Diocletian (Benedictines, Husenbeth). In art he is shown as a layman carrying his head into Aix Cathedral. Sometimes he is portrayed giving grapes to a poor man. Saint Mitrius is venerated as the patron of Aix-en-Provence (Roeder).
Priest and martyr.
Nicholas Tavelic, Adeodatus Aribert, Stephen of Cueno & Peter of Siardus of Mariengaarden, O. Praem
Nicholas I, Pope (RM)
Born in Rome between 819-822; died there in 867. Born into a distinguished Roman family, Nicholas served in the Curia under Pope Sergius II, became a deacon under Pope Leo IV, and was a trusted adviser to Pope Benedict III. Nicholas was elected bishop of Rome on April 22, 858, while still a deacon, and occupied the see with distinguished courage and energy for nine troubled years.
Among the matters with which he had to deal was the long dispute about the patriarchal see of Constantinople, the turbulence of Archbishop John of Ravenna and the ambition of Hincmar of Rheims, in addition to the matrimonial troubles of several important persons. He insisted on the sanctity and indissolubility of marriage, despite the threat of the invasion of Rome, when he denounced the bigamous marriage of the emperor's nephew, King Lothair II of Lorraine. This precipitated a struggle during which Nicholas deposed two German archbishops and Lothair's army threatened Rome.
He also insisted on the freedom to marry when he forced King Charles the Bald of Burgundy to accept the marriage of his daughter Judith to Baldwin of Flanders without the king's consent and compelled the Frankish bishops to withdraw the excommunication they had imposed on her for marrying without her father's consent.
In 861 Nicholas compelled Archbishop Hincmar of Rheims to accept papal appellate jurisdiction in important cases when he obliged Hincmar to restore Bishop Rothad of Soissons, whom he had deposed.
Twice he excommunicated recalcitrant and powerful Archbishop John of Ravenna, who counted on imperial support, for infringing on the rights of the Holy See and for abuses of his office, and made him submit to papal authority.
Nicholas was also involved in controversy with Constantinople throughout his pontificate over the illegal deposition of Ignatius and the appointment of Photius as patriarch of Constantinople by Emperor Michael III. Nicholas excommunicated Michael in 863; the matter was not finally resolved until newly crowned Emperor Basil I expelled Photius, who had declared the pope deposed, on the day Nicholas died.
Faced by disorder or scandal, Nicholas could not rest until he had dealt with it; but he sometimes invoked the aid of persons considerably less moderate and reasonable than himself.
He encouraged missionary activities, sending Saint Anskar as papal missionary to Scandinavia and bringing about the conversion of Bulgaria with missionaries he sent there. A letter (Responsa Nicolai ad consulta Bulgarum) he sent to the newly baptized Khan Boris of the Bulgars has been characterized as 'a masterpiece of pastoral wisdom and one of the finest documents of the history of the papacy.' The letter summarizes Christian faith and discipline.
A champion of papal primacy and the ascendancy of the Church over emperors, kings, and other secular authorities in matters concerning the Church, he was responsible for restoring the papacy to the highest prestige.
Nicholas's generosity made him beloved by the people and his defense of justice and virtue earned the respect of his contemporaries generally. He was famous for the reforms he instituted among the clergy and laity, was a patron of the arts and learning, and was a man of the highest personal integrity. Saint Nicholas is one of the three popes to whom the epithet 'the Great' is given (Saint Leo I and Saint Gregory I being the other two) (Attwater, Benedictines, Delaney).
Quintain of Rodez B (RM)
Died c. 527. An African by birth, he fled to Gaul to escape the Arian-Vandal persecution. Eventually he became bishop of Rodez, but was driven thence, this time by Arian Visigoths, and went to Auvergne, where Saint Euphrasius made him successor in the see of Clermont (Benedictines).
Stanislaus Kostka, SJ (RM)
Born in Rostkovo Castle, Poland, October 28, 1550; died 1568. Son of a Polish, Stanislaus was educated by a private tutor and then sent to the Jesuit college in Vienna when he was 14. He was soon known for his studious ways, deep religious fervor, and mortifications. After he recovered from a serious illness during which he experienced several visions, he decided to join the Jesuits.
Opposed by his father he was refused admission by the Vienna provincial, who feared the father's reaction if he admitted the youth, Stanislaus walked 350 miles to Dillengen where Saint Peter Canisius, provincial of Upper Germany, took him in and then sent him to Rome to Francis Borgia, father general of the Society of Jesus, who accepted him into the Jesuits in October 1567, at age 17. He practiced the most severe mortifications, experienced ecstasies at Mass, and lived a life of great sanctity and angelic innocence. He died in Rome on August 15, only nine months after joining the Jesuits, and was canonized in 1726. He is one of the lesser patrons of Poland (Attwater, Benedictines, Delaney).
Saint Stanislaus is generally rendered in art as a very young Jesuit in adoration before a monstrance.
Sometimes (1) two angels and Saint Barbara bring him the Eucharist; (2) the Virgin and Child appear to him; or (3) there is a pilgrim's staff and hat near him (Roeder).
Venerated in Poland. Patron of young people (because of his youth). Invoked against broken limbs, eye troubles, fever, and palpitation. Also when in doubt (Roeder).
Valentine, Solutor & Victor MM (RM)
Died c. 305. Martyrs at Ravenna under Diocletian. Probably a duplicate of November 11. To both groups some martyrologies add a number of other names (Benedictines).
About Saints of the Day
These summaries were prepared in 1998 by St. Patrick's parishioner Katherine I. Rabenstein and are reproduced on www.saintpatrickdc.org with the permission of the author. Note that the content has not been updated since that time and represents the research of the author. An alphabetical index of all saints on our site is available. Source references are also available. HTML formatting © 2007-2008 by St. Patrick's Catholic Church, Washington, D.C.